Research & Studies

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10-Year Follow-up of Intensive Glucose Control in Type 2 Diabetes

Background During the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who received intensive glucose therapy had a lower risk of microvascular complications than did those receiving conventional dietary therapy. We conducted post-trial monitoring to...


Comparison of alpha lipoic with vitamin B peripheral neuropathy

. A B S T R A C T Background Vitamin B is frequently used for treating peripheral neuropathy but its efficacy is not clear. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of vitamin B for...


Is Ramipril Really Better Than Other Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors After Acute Myocardial Infarction

Whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are interchangeable and equally efficacious after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is controversial. We assessed whether ramipril was superior to other ACE inhibitors after AMI as suggested by a previously published study. We performed...


Cholesterol Lowering in Intermediate-Risk Persons without Cardiovascular Disease

BACKGROUND Previous trials have shown that the use of statins to lower cholesterol reduces the risk of cardiovascular events among persons without cardiovascular disease. Those trials have involved persons with elevated lipid levels or inflammatory markers and involved mainly...


Esomeprazole and rabeprazole did not reduce antiplatelet effects of aspirin/clopidogrel dual therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a prospective, randomized, case–control study

Objectives: Controversy has been prompted based on drug interaction between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and aspirin/clopidogrel leading to weakened effects. However, whether such interaction was drug-specific or class effect remains controversial. This study predicted the impact of esomeprazole and...


clinical pharmacokinetics of molsidomin



Does Duration of Neuropathic Pain Impact the Effectiveness of Pregabalin?

& Abstract  Background: Patients with chronic pain conditions such as neuropathic pain frequently experience delays in diagnosis and treatment. Ideally, all patients should be treated in a timely manner, but in those patients with more established disease it...


Combined Calcium and Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Elderly Women: Confirmation of Reversal of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism and Hip Fracture Risk: The Decalyos II Study

Vitamin D insufficiency and low calcium intake contribute to increase parathyroid function and bone fragility in elderly people. Calcium and vitamin D supplements can reverse secondary hyperparathyroidism thus preventing hip fractures, as proved by Decalyos...


Diabetes and Alpha Lipoic Acid

Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary...


Empagliflozin and Progression of Kidney Disease in Type 2 Diabetes

BACKGROUND Diabetes confers an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular and renal events. In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, empagliflozin, a sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, reduced the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with type 2...


Effect of telmisartan on kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease: an observational study

Background: Globally the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising, an important cause of death and loss of disability-adjusted life years. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is involved in its pathogenesis. The aim of...


Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir for Untreated HCV Genotype 1 Infection

BACKGROUND In phase 2 studies, treatment with the all-oral combination of the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir and the NS5A inhibitor ledipasvir resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response among previously untreated patients with hepatitis C...


Safety of levetiracetam among infants younger than 12 months

Background: There are limited data on the use of the antiepileptic drug (AED) levetiracetam for the treatment of infants. Aim: To prospectively evaluate the safety of levetiracetam oral solution and its impact on epilepsy severity...


The role of duloxetine in stress urinary incontinence

Objectives This systematic review determined whether the duloxetine can get more benefits versus placebo in managing women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) all over the world. Methods We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials...


Ramipril and hydrochlorothiazide treatment of hypertensive urgency in the ED

Hypertensive urgencies are a frequent cause for consultation at the emergency department (ED). There are multiple approaches to treating this presentation, and we endeavored to assess the safety and efficacy of an oral treatment with...

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