Composition & Excipients:
Composition: Each tablet contains:
40mg telmisartan /5 mg amlodipine (as besylate).
40mg telmisartan /10 mg amlodipine (as besylate).
80mg telmisartan /5 mg amlodipine (as besylate).
80 mg telmisartan /10 mg amlodipine (as besylate).
Mechanism of Action
Angiotensin II is formed from angiotensin I in a reaction catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, kininase II). Angiotensin II is the principal pressor agent of the renin-angiotensin system, with effects that include vasoconstriction, stimulation of synthesis and release of aldosterone, cardiac stimulation, and renal reabsorption of sodium. Telmisartan blocks the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II by selectively blocking the binding of angiotensin II to the AT1 receptor in many tissues, such as vascular smooth muscle and the adrenal gland. Its action is therefore independent of the pathways for angiotensin II synthesis.
Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with ACE inhibitors, which inhibit the biosynthesis of angiotensin II from angiotensin I, is widely used in the treatment of hypertension. ACE inhibitors also inhibit the degradation of bradykinin, a reaction also catalyzed by ACE. Because telmisartan does not inhibit ACE (kininase II), it does not affect the response to bradykinin. Whether this difference has clinical relevance is not yet known. Telmisartan does not bind to or block other hormone receptors or ion channels known to be important in cardiovascular regulation.
Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that inhibits the transmembrane influx of calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Amlodipine inhibits calcium ion influx across cell membranes selectively, with a greater effect on vascular smooth muscle cells than on cardiac muscle cells. Serum calcium concentration is not affected by amlodipine.
Amlodipine is a peripheral arterial vasodilator that acts directly on vascular smooth muscle to cause a reduction in peripheral vascular resistance and reduction in blood pressure.
INDICATIONS AND CLINICAL USE:
Telmidipine is an angiotensin II receptor blocker and a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker combination product indicated for the treatment of hypertension alone or with other antihypertensive agents to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions.
\telmidipine tablets are indicated as initial therapy in patients likely to need multiple antihypertensive agents to achieve their blood pressure goals.
Telmidipine tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis or angioedema) to telmisartan, amlodipine, or any other component of this product .
Do not co-administer aliskiren with TELMIDIPINE in patients with diabetes.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS :
Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue TELMIDIPINE as soon as possible .
In patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system, such as volume- or salt-depleted patients (e.g., those being treated with high doses of diuretics), symptomatic hypotension may occur after initiation of therapy with TELMIDIPINE tablets. Either correct this condition prior to administration of TELMIDIPINE tablets, or start treatment under close medical supervision with a reduced dose.
If hypotension does occur, place the patient in the supine position and, if necessary, give an intravenous infusion of normal saline. A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further treatment, which usually can be continued without difficulty once the blood pressure has stabilized.
Symptomatic hypotension is possible, particularly in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Because of the gradual onset of action, acute hypotension is unlikely.
Hyperkalemia may occur in patients on ARBs, particularly in patients with advanced renal impairment, heart failure, on renal replacement therapy, or on potassium supplements, potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium-containing salt substitutes or other drugs that increase potassium levels. Consider periodic determinations of serum eelectrolytes to detect possible electrolyte imbalances, particularly in patients at risk.
Patients with Impaired Hepatic Function
As the majority of telmisartan is eliminated by biliary excretion, patients with biliary obstructive disorders or hepatic insufficiency can be expected to have reduced clearance. Initiate telmisartan at low doses and titrate slowly in these patients .
Amlodipine is extensively metabolized by the liver and the plasma elimination half-life (t1/2) is 56 hours in patients with impaired hepatic function. Since patients with hepatic impairment have decreased clearance of amlodipine, start amlodipine or add amlodipine at 2.5 mg in patients with hepatic impairment. The lowest dose of TELMIDIPINE is 40/5 mg; therefore, initial therapy with TELMIDIPINE tablets is not recommended in hepatically impaired patients.
Renal Function Impairment
As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, anticipate changes in renal function in susceptible individuals. In patients whose renal function may depend on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (e.g., patients with severe congestive heart failure or renal dysfunction), treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists has been associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and (rarely) with acute renal failure and or death.
Risk of Myocardial Infarction or Increased Angina
Worsening angina and acute myocardial infarction can develop after starting or increasing the dose of TELMIDIPINE, particularly in patients with severe obstructive coronary artery disease.
Closely monitor patients with heart failure.
peripheral edema, dizziness, hypotension , syncope and back pain .
TELMIDIPINE can cause fetal and neonatal morbidity and death when administered to pregnant women.
When pregnancy is detected, TELMIDIPINE should be disconnected as soon as possible.
Because of the potential of adverse effects on the nursing infant, decide whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
It is not known whether amlodipine is excreted in human milk. In the absence of this information, it is recommended to discontinue nursing while amlodipine is administered.
Safety and effectiveness of TELMIDIPINE in pediatric patients have not been established.
No overall differences in efficacy or safety of TELMIDIPINE tablets were observed in this patient population.
Aliskiren: Do not co-administer aliskiren with TELMIDIPINE in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with TELMIDIPINE in patients with renal impairment (GFR <60 mL/min).
Digoxin: When telmisartan was co-administered with digoxin, median increases in digoxin peak plasma concentration (49%) and in trough concentration (20%) were observed. Therefore, monitor digoxin levels when initiating, adjusting, and discontinuing telmisartan for the purpose of keeping the digoxin level within the therapeutic range.
Lithium: Reversible increases in serum lithium concentrations and toxicity have been reported during concomitant administration of lithium with angiotensin II receptor antagonists including telmisartan. Therefore, monitor serum lithium levels during concomitant use.
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors): In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including telmisartan, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving telmisartan and NSAID therapy.
The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including telmisartan may be attenuated by NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors.
Ramipril and Ramiprilat: Co-administration of telmisartan 80 mg once daily and ramipril 10 mg once daily to healthy subjects increases steady-state Cmax and AUC of ramipril 2.3- and 2.1-fold, respectively, and Cmax and AUC of ramiprilat 2.4- and 1.5-fold, respectively. Co-administration of telmisartan and ramipril is not recommended.
Other Drugs: Co-administration of telmisartan did not result in a clinically significant interaction with acetaminophen, amlodipine, glyburide, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, warfarin, or ibuprofen.